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The Revolution will be Sponsored: Research by Pau Figueres

Figure 1: Screenshot of Pau Figueres’s online project “The Revolution will be Sponsored

During the 2015 Spring academic term, I am hosting in the School of Visual Arts at Penn State, Visiting Scholar Pau Figueres, who is an artist and Ph.D. candidate from Bilbao, Spain. His research focuses on anti-consumerism and concepts of recyclability.

Upon arriving at Penn State Figueres began to produce a diverse set of works on branding that he should be making public in the future. As part of his activities he also developed an online resource, “The Revolution will be Sponsored,” on which he shares the work of artists who focus on, and/or use or critique corporate brands. The online entries in effect have turned out to be an artistic curation, meaning its more of an art project, itself.

Figueres’s methodology includes implementing principles of remix in his analysis, which is the reason why he is doing research under my guidance. I look forward to the results of his ongoing investigation.  In the mean time, one can reflect on his current online project, which in effect exposes how art and commerce are much closer than ever.

Preliminary Notes on Theodor Adorno’s Minima Moralia Part 3


Figure 1: Detail of Minima Moralia Redux Remixes 51 – 55. First set of entries part of the second part of Minima Moralia Redux.

Read the entire entry at Remix Data

Minima Moralia Redux, a selective remix of Theodor Adorno’s Minima Moralia, enters a second phase in 2015. This was not foreseen when I began the project back in 2011, because the work is not only a work of art, but also research on data analytics, as well as a critical reflection on networked culture.

The first part of Minima Moralia Redux (entries  one to fifty), consisted of updating Theodor Adorno’s aphorisms–that is to remix them as contemporary reflections of the way global society and culture is engaging with emerging technology. When I finished the first section, I realized that the project’s aesthetics were changing. This was for a few reasons. In terms of research, the first section provided more than enough data for me to data-mine Adorno’s approach to writing; therefore, I came to see no need in following this methodology. I plan to make my findings about this aspect  public in a formal paper in the future.

Read the entire entry at Remix Data

Routledge Companion to Remix Studies Now Available

I just received in the mail a hardbound copy of The Routledge Companion to Remix Studies. It’s been such a long process. Editing 41 chapters has been quite an endeavor, but a good one. I would like to thank my co-editors, xtine Burrough and Owen Gallagher, who are just amazing collaborators. This book could not have been published on time had it not been for our mutual diligence in meeting deadlines. I also want to thank the contributors who were just amazing during the long editing process (for a full list of authors see the dedicated site for the book: Remix Studies).

I really hope that researchers, academics and remixers find the anthology worth perusing.

More information on the book:

Routledge: http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415716253/

Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Routledge-Companion-Remix-Studies-Companions/dp/041571625X


Interview for the Radio Show: Fade In/Fade Out, Remixing Culture

At the end of July, I was interviewed  for KulturWelle. Their radio feature titled Fade In/Fade Out, Remixing Culture, which aired on September 3, 2014, presents excerpts of interviews with musicologist Fabian Czolbe, media and communications researcher Steffen Lepa, Ramón Reichert, and, myself, Eduardo Navas.

The feature is literally a remix in German and English of our reflections on the recyclability of culture complemented with music and sound excerpts. Even if one does not understand German, one should listen to the hour long show. It is a true rhetorical soundscape equivalent to a well mixed music recording. Many thanks to Nikita Hock, who first contacted me, and all the producers of the radio show, including  Anastasia Andersson, Bernadette Breyer, Lara Deininger and Angelika Piechotta.

Table of Contents for the Routledge Companion to Remix Studies Available

We have now turned in the manuscript of The Routledge Companion to Remix Studies, and can release the Table of Contents. The reader is due for release around December 14, 2014. The TOC is below:

Introduction Eduardo Navas, Owen Gallagher, xtine burrough

Part I: History
1. “Remix and the Dialogic Engine of Culture: A Model for Generative Combinatoriality” Martin Irvine
2. “A Rhetoric of Remix” Scott H. Church
3. “Good Artists Copy; Great Artists Steal: Reflections on Cut-Copy-Paste Culture” Stefan Sonvilla-Weiss
4. “Toward a Remix Culture: An Existential Perspective” Vito Campanelli
5. “An Oral History of Sampling: From Turntables to Mashups” Kembrew McLeod
6. “Can I Borrow Your Proper Name? Remixing Signatures and the Contemporary Author” Cicero da Silva
7. The Extended Remix: Rhetoric and history Margie Borschke
8. “Culture and Remix: A Theory on Cultural Sublation” Eduardo Navas

Part II: Aesthetics
9. “Remix Strategies in Social Media” Lev Manovich
10. “Remixing Movies and Trailers Before and After the Digital Age” Nicola Maria Dusi
11. “Remixing the Plague of Images: Video Art from Latin America in a Transnational Context” Erandy Vergara
12. “Race & Remix: The Aesthetics of Race in the Visual & Performing Arts” Tashima Thomas
13. “Digital Poetics and Remix Culture: From the Artisanal Image to the Immaterial Image” Monica Tavares
14. “The End of an Aura: Nostalgia, Memory, and the Haunting of Hip-hop” Roy Christopher
15. “Appropriation is Activism” Byron Russell

Part III: Ethics
16. “The Emerging Ethics of Networked Culture” Aram Sinnreich
17. “The Panopticon of Ethical Video Remix Practice” Mette Birk
18. “Cutting Scholarship Together/Apart: Rethinking the Political-Economy of Scholarly Book Publishing” Janneke Adema
19. “Copyright and Fair Use in Remix: From Alarmism to Action” Patricia Aufderheide
20. “I Thought I Made A Vid, But Then You Told Me That I Didn’t: Aesthetics and Boundary Work in the Fan Vidding Community” Katharina Freund
21. “Peeling The Layers of the Onion: Authorship in Mashup and Remix Cultures” John Logie
22. “remixthecontext (a theoretical fiction)” Mark Amerika

Part IV: Politics
23. “A Capital Remix” Rachel O’Dwyer
24. “Remix Practices and Activism: A Semiotic Analysis of Creative Dissent” Paolo Peverini
25. “Political Remix Video as a Vernacular Discourse” Olivia Conti
26. “Locative Media as Remix” Conor McGarrigle
27. “The Politics of John Lennon’s “Imagine”: Contextualizing the Roles of Mashups and New Media in Political Protest” J. Meryl Krieger
28. “Détournement as a Premise of the Remix from Political, Aesthetic, and Technical Perspectives” Nadine Wanono
29. “The New Polymath (Remixing Knowledge)” Rachel Falconer

Part V: Practice
30. “Crises of Meaning in Communities of Creative Appropriation: A Case Study of the 2010 RE/Mixed Media Festival” Tom Tenney
31. “Of ‘REAPPROPRIATIONS'” Gustavo Romano
32. “Aesthetics of Remix: Networked Interactive Objects and Interface Design” Jonah Brucker-Cohen
33. “Reflections on the Amen Break: A Continued History, an Unsettled Ethics” Nate Harrison
34. “Going Crazy with Remix: A Classroom Study by Practice via Lenz v. Universal” xtine burrough and Dr. Emily Erickson
35. “A Remix Artist and Advocate” Desiree D’Alessandro
36. “Occupy / Band Aid Mashup: ‘Do They Know It’s Christmas?'” Owen Gallagher
37. “Remixing the Remix” Elisa Kreisinger
38. “A Fair(y) Use Tale” Eric Faden
39. “An Aesthetics of Deception in Political Remix Video” Diran Lyons
40. “Radical Remix: Manifestoon” Jesse Drew
41. “In Two Minds” Kevin Atherton


Forthcoming: The Routledge Companion to Remix Studies

I have not posted on Remix Theory for some time. The reason being that I have been editing along with fellow editors xtine Burrough and Owen Gallagher an upcoming volume on Remix Studies. It has been a lot of intensive work, needless to say but well worthwhile as we believe the remix community will value the many contributions that comprise the volume. We hope to have the book published in the latter half of 2014–at the moment the tentative release date is for early 2015.  Here is some information and a link to the official webpage:

The Routledge Companion to Remix Studies

Edited by Eduardo Navas, Owen Gallagher, xtine burrough

The Remix Studies Reader comprises contemporary texts by key authors and artists who are active in the emerging field of remix studies. This rapidly growing field extends from remix culture, an organic international movement that originated in the popular music culture of the 1970s and has grown into a rich cultural activity encompassing various forms of media. The act of recombining pre-existing material brings up pressing questions of authenticity, reception, authorship, copyright, and the techno-politics of media activism. This book approaches remix studies from various angles, including sections on history, aesthetics, ethics, and politics, and presents theoretical chapters alongside case studies of remix projects related to the themes of each section. The Remix Studies Reader will be a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners, as well as a teaching tool for instructors using remix practices in the classroom.


The Long Table at Refest at La Mama/Culturehub NYC, November 29, 2013

On Friday January 29, I participated in The Long Table, an open discussion session part of Refest in which about 8 individuals were invited to discuss the state of remix in 2013. The video of the discussion is embedded above. The Long Table was co-curated by Tom Tenney. The event took place at La Mama streamed live and archived online by Culturehub.  I had the pleasure to participate in this event along with Adriano Clemente, David CommanderFabian Saucedo, Jennifer Weber, and DJ Spooky, among others. The discussion began with the copyright dispute over the song “Girls” between GoldieBlox and The Beastie Boys. It moved from there to other aspects of remix. Refest took place at La Mama from November 29 – December 1, and also featured a performance by DJ Spooky which took place on November 30. The video of the performance is embedded below. Many thanks to Tom Tenney for inviting me to participate, a special thanks to the entire staff at La Mama and Culturehub, who do an amazing job at producing high quality events.

Watch live streaming video from culturehubnyc at livestream.com

Three Junctures of Remix Catalog Available

The catalog for the exhibition Three Junctures of Remix, which took place from January 17 to March 15, 2013  is now available for download as a PDF. I would like to thank the entire gallery staff and committee members for making the exhibition possible, especially Trish Stone, Jordan Crandall, Hector Bracho, Doug Ramsey, and Scott Blair. I especially thank the artists Arcangel Constantini, Mark Amerika  & Chad Mossholder, Giselle Beiguelman, and Elisa Kreisinger,  who participated in the exhibition, and were generous in providing interviews now published in the catalog.

–Eduardo Navas

Hip-Hop to Dubstep: International Music Styles and the Remix, Part 5 of 7

Above: “portishead – documentaire – 1998 (welcome to portishead)”, included in the resource selections below.

List of online resources and music selection for week 5 of Hip-Hop to Dubstep, taught during the summer of 2013 at The New School’s  Media Studies, Department of Communication. I will be releasing brief notes based on my class lectures in the near future. If interested in looking at the actual class webpage with all the weekly selections at once, feel free to peruse this link: http://navasse.net/NS/NCOM3039A/. My notes will not be available on the class webpage, only on each corresponding entry here on Remix Theory. Please note that links may become broken. If and when this happens, the best thing to do is to search for the source by name. And do let me know if anything is broken and I will look into it.

Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4

Week 5
Trip-Hop/Downtempo/Drum ‘n’ Bass
July 1 – July 5, 2013

Music Selection and Relevant Links:

The Drum and Bass Diaries: Episode I – What is Drum and Bass?
The Drum and Bass Diaries: Episode II – What is a Rave?
The Drum and Bass Diaries: Episode III – The Master of Ceremony
The Drum and Bass Diaries: Episode IV – The Life of a DJ
The Drum and Bass Diaries: Episode V – Making Music
The Drum and Bass Diaries: Episode VI – The Next Generation
The Drum and Bass Diaries: Episode VII – The Future
The Drum and Bass Diaries: Episode VIII – The Love

The Bristol Sound
MASSIVE ATTACK PORTISHEAD Bristol Academy, 19th February 2005
portishead – documentaire – 1998 (welcome to portishead)

Roni Size – BBC 2 – The Works Documentary Part 1
Roni Size – BBC 2 – The Works Documentary Part 2

To undestand the process and history of sampling, view Nate Harrison’s
“Amen Break”
The Winstons – “Amen Brother”

The concept album (to be considered in relation to noise and the studio as a music instrument):
The Pet Sounds/Sgt. Pepper Connection-Part 1
The Pet Sounds/Sgt. Pepper Connection-Part 2

Trip-Hop/Downtempo Selection:

Double Dee and Steinski Lesson 1:
Double Dee and Steinski Lesson 2 (1984):
Double Dee and Steinki Lesson 3 (1985):

Coldcut – “Say Kids What time is it?” (1987)
Coldcut – “Beats and Pieces” (1987)
(Coldcut remixed Eric B & Rakim’s “Paid in Full” thanks to the recognition of the two tracks above. See week 4 for links that explain more about “Paid in full.”)
Coldcut was heavily influenced by the aesthetics of cut & paste as performed on the turntables by Grandmaster Flash on his well-known “Grandmaster
Flash’s Adventures on the Wheels of Steel” (1981)

DJ Shadow – “Midnight in a Perfect World”
JFB Midnight (Dj Shadow) Routine
Midnight In A Perfect World (Extended Version) – DJ Shadow
DJ Shadow – Midnight In A Perfect World [Gab Remix]

Massive Attack – Protection (1994)
Mad Professor vs. Massive Attack – No Protection (1994)

Massive Attack – “Thankful for what you’ve got” (1991)
The above is a cover of Vaughn’s original recording:
William De Vaughn – “Thankful for What You’ve Got”
William De Vaughn’s composition was recorded in various dance versions (currently not sure of proper authors of these remixes):
Remixed by Paul Oakenfold and Steve Osborne

Worth considering how Massive Attack’s cover gets remixed to fit the dialogue of a film (pay attention to how the verses get rearranged to complement the film):

Portishead – Dummy (1994)
Portishead – Roseland New York City (Live)

Portishead – Numb
Portishead – Numb (remix)

Portishead – “Sour Times”
Blondie – “Heart of Glass”
Mashup – “Sour Glass” a mashup of Portishead “Sour Times” and Blondie’s “Heart of Glass”:

Massive Attack and Portishead – Glorybox

Nightmares on Wax YouTube Music Selection from the Album Carboot Soul (1999):

DJ Kicks’ Thievery Corporation (1999)
Thievery Corporation Live at KCRW (2011)

Kruder and Dorfmeister (KD Sessions)
First song in the KD session above is a remix of Roni Size’s “Heroes”(1997) :
Roni Size “Heroes”: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xb7fQhz21OU

DJ Crush’s Strictly Turntablized (1995)

Tricky – “Aftermath” (1995)
Tricky – Maxinquaye (Album, 1995)


Early Drum ‘n’ Bass (Jungle) Selection (note selection starts in the mid-nineties, just as Jungle is coming out of hardcore):

Shy FX & UK Apachi – Original nuttah (1994)

Marvelous Cain – Hitman (1994)
Arguably a popular intro to cut into a set. Note the influence of dancehall in this version. Also note the Amen Break: Marvelous Cain – “Hitman (Dream Team Mix)”
Marvelous Cain – “Jump Up” (1994)

DJ Hype & Ganja Max (Feat MC Fats & DJ Daddy) – “Rinse Out” (1995)

TDK – “Friday” (Circa mid-90s)

Splash – “Babylon” (1995)

Rude Bwoy Monty – “Summer Sumting” (1995)

Krome & Time – “Licence” (1995)
(Note that it uses the splced amen break)
Krome & Time – “Ganja Man” (1995)

Droppin’ Science – “Easy” (1995)


Drum ‘n’ Bass Selection:

Goldie – Timeless (1995)

Goldie – “What You Won’t Do for Love (Radio Edit)” (1998)
Compare Goldie’s version with 2pac’s “Do For Love” (1997)
Original by Bobby Caldwell – “What You Won’t Do for Love”(1978)

Photek – Selections from Modus Operandi (1997)
Photek – various selections
Photek – “Knitevision” (1998)

Roni Size & Reprazent – Selections from New Forms (1997)
Roni Size – “Watching Windows” (1997)
Nuyorican Soul Remix of Roni Size’s “Watching Windows”

DJ Die – “Slide Away” (1998)

Adam F – “Brand New Funk” (1998)

Ray Keith – “Do it” (1998)

Todd Terry – “Blackout” (1999)
Todd Terry – Resolutions (1999)

Digital – “Far Out” (Remix) (1997)

Ed Rush – Sabotage (1997)

Aphrodite Music Selection

Kemistry & Storm, radio session (1997)


Jazz/Ambient Drum ‘n’ Bass Selection:

T. Power vs. MK Ultra – “Mutant Jazz” (1995)

LTJ Bukem – Logical Progressions (1996-2000)

Cujo – “Traffic” (1997)

Kosma – “Aeroboot” (2002)

Red Snapper – “Crusoe Takes a Trip” (1996)


Drum ‘n’ Bass covers/versions worth of note:

Sade – “Sweetest Taboo”
Sweet Corner – “Sweetest Taboo”

Beatles, “Come Together”
MC Olive, “Come Together” (1995)

Inia Kamose – “Here Comes the Hotstepper”
Ini Kamose – “Here Comes the Hotstepper” (Booyaka Remix) (1995)
The hip hop version takes the chorus from “Land of a Thousand Dances” by The Head Hunters (1965)
R & B version by Wilson Pickett was more popular (1966):

Hip-Hop to Dubstep: International Music Styles and the Remix, Part 4 of 7

Above: “Pump Up the Volume – Part 1, The History of House Music”, included in the resource selections below.

List of online resources and music selection for week 4 of Hip-Hop to Dubstep, taught during the summer of 2013 at The New School’s  Media Studies, Department of Communication. I will be releasing brief notes based on my class lectures in the near future. If interested in looking at the actual class webpage with all the weekly selections at once, feel free to peruse this link: http://navasse.net/NS/NCOM3039A/. My notes will not be available on the class webpage, only on each corresponding entry here on Remix Theory. Please note that links may become broken. If and when this happens, the best thing to do is to search for the source by name. And do let me know if anything is broken and I will look into it.

Part 1
Part 2
Part 3

Week 4
Hip-Hop/House Music/Techno
June 24 – 28, 2013

Music Selection and Relevant Links:

Modulations – History Of Electronic Dance Music Documentary

Pump Up The Volume – Part 1 – The History Of House Music
Pump Up The Volume – Part 2 – The History Of House Music
Pump Up The Volume – The History Of House Music Documentary PT 3:

Rave – BBC house music documentary from 1992 [1/3]:
Rave – BBC house music documentary from 1992 [2/3]
Rave – BBC house music documentary from 1992 [3/3]:

Krautrock – The Rebirth of Germany (BBC Documentary) – Full Version


Hip Hop Music Selection:

LA Dreamteam – “Rockberry Jam” (1985)

Rock Master Scott And The Dynamic Three – “The Roof Is On Fire” (1984)

Beastie Boys – License to Ill (1986)

Erik B and Rakim – Paid in Full (Album, 1987)
ErikB and Rakim – “Paid in Full” (Remix)
Sample sources for bass-line and drums:
Dennis Edwards – “Don’t Look Any Further”
Soul Searchers – “Ashley’s Roach Clip” (break happens around 3:35)

LL Cool J – “Going Back to Cali” (1988)
LL Cool J – “Illegal Search” (1990)

EPMD – “You Gots to Chill” (1988)
Sample taken from Zapp & Roger’s “Bounce to the Ounce”

Boogie Down Productions (KRS-One) (1989)

Ice Cube – AmeriKKKa’s Most Wanted (Album, 1990)

Public Enemy “Night of the Living Baseheads” (1988)

A Tribe Called Quest – The Lowend Theory (1991)
A Tribe Called Quest – Midnight Marauders (1993)

Wu – Tang Clan – Enter The Wu. Tang – 36 Chambers (Full Album, 1993)

Dre Dre – The Chronic (Album, 1992)

2pac – 2Pacalypse Now (Album, 1991)

2pac – “Changes” (1992, remixed and released in 1998)
Samples from Bruce Hornsby and the Range – “The Way It Is” (1986)

Nas sampled 2Pac’s “Changes” for his song “Black President” (1998)

Notorious Big – Ready To Die (Full Album, 1994)
Biggie Smalls – “One More Chance”
Biggie Smalls – “One More Chance Remix” (1995)
Remix samples from Debarge’s 1993 song “Stay with Me” (sample starts around 2:36)


House Music Selection (early house):

Anita Ward – “Ring my Bell” (1979)

Skatt Brothers – “Walk the Night” (1979)
Extended remix:

The Salsoul Orchestra. “Ooh, I Love It (Love Break)”. 12″ Original Remix Shep Pettibone. (1982)
Short version (break mix):
(Note that in the above mixes you can already hear the drum arrangement that Frankie Bones would come to perfect with drum machines.)

First Choice- “Let No Man Put Asunder” (1983)


House Music Selection (house proper):

Chip E. – “Time to Jack” (1986)

On The House – “Move Your Body” (1986)
(First record to use a piano in house music. Became a house anthem because it uses the word “house” in the lyrics)

Mr. Fingers (Larry Heard) – “Can You Feel it?” (1986)

Farley Jackmaster Funk – Jack’n The House (1987)

Ralphi Rosario – You Used To Hold Me (1987)

Phuture – “Acid Trax” (1987)

Raze – “Break for Love” (1988)

“Work it to the Bone” (1988)

Jungle Brothers – “I’ll House You” (1989)
(The above crosses over to what came to be called “hip-house.” Some house purists did not like rap combined with house. Often times only the dub or instrumental versions of this record was remixed on the dancefloor.) One of various intrumental versions that were released:
“Richie Rich Instrumental”

Ten City – That’s The Way Love Is (Underground Mix, 1989)


Techno Selection:

Cibotron, “Clear” (1983)
“Clear” Frankie Bones (founder of House music) Remix:
Also listed under electro-Funk for Week 3
Cibotron, “Cosmic Cars” (1983)

Model 500 “No UFOs” (1985)

Derrick May – “Nude Photo” (1987)
(2004 Remix)

Derrick May – “Rhythim Is Rhythim” – Strings of Life (Original Mix, 1987)

Inner City – “The Good Life” (1988)
Inner City – “Big Fun” (1988)
Inner City is a crossover act, and is not necessarily considered a techno group, even though Kevin Saunderson is one of the three founders of Techno in Detroit. The songs by Inner City were also mixed with Freestyle and some Electro-Funk, depending on the club.

Joey Beltram – “Energy Flash” (1990)
Considered a pivotal track in defining the sound of techno particulary in Europe. It is one of the compositions that also opened the door for the aesthetics of trance. Beltram considered his composition to be part of house music, but it eventually became labeled as techno in Europe for selling purposes.

Aphex Twin – Didgeridoo (1992)

Carl Cox – “The Player” (1996)

Jeff Mills – Metropolis (Full Length, 2001)
Inspired by the film Metropolis

Richie Hawtin – “DE9 | Closer To The Edit” (2001, full-length)

Juan Atkins – “Flash Flood” (2012)

Current Projects