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Archive of the category 'Stealing'

Table of Contents for the Routledge Companion to Remix Studies Available

We have now turned in the manuscript of The Routledge Companion to Remix Studies, and can release the Table of Contents. The reader is due for release around December 14, 2014. The TOC is below:

Introduction Eduardo Navas, Owen Gallagher, xtine burrough

Part I: History
1. “Remix and the Dialogic Engine of Culture: A Model for Generative Combinatoriality” Martin Irvine
2. “A Rhetoric of Remix” Scott H. Church
3. “Good Artists Copy; Great Artists Steal: Reflections on Cut-Copy-Paste Culture” Stefan Sonvilla-Weiss
4. “Toward a Remix Culture: An Existential Perspective” Vito Campanelli
5. “An Oral History of Sampling: From Turntables to Mashups” Kembrew McLeod
6. “Can I Borrow Your Proper Name? Remixing Signatures and the Contemporary Author” Cicero da Silva
7. The Extended Remix: Rhetoric and history Margie Borschke
8. “Culture and Remix: A Theory on Cultural Sublation” Eduardo Navas

Part II: Aesthetics
9. “Remix Strategies in Social Media” Lev Manovich
10. “Remixing Movies and Trailers Before and After the Digital Age” Nicola Maria Dusi
11. “Remixing the Plague of Images: Video Art from Latin America in a Transnational Context” Erandy Vergara
12. “Race & Remix: The Aesthetics of Race in the Visual & Performing Arts” Tashima Thomas
13. “Digital Poetics and Remix Culture: From the Artisanal Image to the Immaterial Image” Monica Tavares
14. “The End of an Aura: Nostalgia, Memory, and the Haunting of Hip-hop” Roy Christopher
15. “Appropriation is Activism” Byron Russell

Part III: Ethics
16. “The Emerging Ethics of Networked Culture” Aram Sinnreich
17. “The Panopticon of Ethical Video Remix Practice” Mette Birk
18. “Cutting Scholarship Together/Apart: Rethinking the Political-Economy of Scholarly Book Publishing” Janneke Adema
19. “Copyright and Fair Use in Remix: From Alarmism to Action” Patricia Aufderheide
20. “I Thought I Made A Vid, But Then You Told Me That I Didn’t: Aesthetics and Boundary Work in the Fan Vidding Community” Katharina Freund
21. “Peeling The Layers of the Onion: Authorship in Mashup and Remix Cultures” John Logie
22. “remixthecontext (a theoretical fiction)” Mark Amerika

Part IV: Politics
23. “A Capital Remix” Rachel O’Dwyer
24. “Remix Practices and Activism: A Semiotic Analysis of Creative Dissent” Paolo Peverini
25. “Political Remix Video as a Vernacular Discourse” Olivia Conti
26. “Locative Media as Remix” Conor McGarrigle
27. “The Politics of John Lennon’s “Imagine”: Contextualizing the Roles of Mashups and New Media in Political Protest” J. Meryl Krieger
28. “Détournement as a Premise of the Remix from Political, Aesthetic, and Technical Perspectives” Nadine Wanono
29. “The New Polymath (Remixing Knowledge)” Rachel Falconer

Part V: Practice
30. “Crises of Meaning in Communities of Creative Appropriation: A Case Study of the 2010 RE/Mixed Media Festival” Tom Tenney
31. “Of ‘REAPPROPRIATIONS’” Gustavo Romano
32. “Aesthetics of Remix: Networked Interactive Objects and Interface Design” Jonah Brucker-Cohen
33. “Reflections on the Amen Break: A Continued History, an Unsettled Ethics” Nate Harrison
34. “Going Crazy with Remix: A Classroom Study by Practice via Lenz v. Universal” xtine burrough and Dr. Emily Erickson
35. “A Remix Artist and Advocate” Desiree D’Alessandro
36. “Occupy / Band Aid Mashup: ‘Do They Know It’s Christmas?’” Owen Gallagher
37. “Remixing the Remix” Elisa Kreisinger
38. “A Fair(y) Use Tale” Eric Faden
39. “An Aesthetics of Deception in Political Remix Video” Diran Lyons
40. “Radical Remix: Manifestoon” Jesse Drew
41. “In Two Minds” Kevin Atherton

 

Three Junctures of Remix Catalog Available

The catalog for the exhibition Three Junctures of Remix, which took place from January 17 to March 15, 2013  is now available for download as a PDF. I would like to thank the entire gallery staff and committee members for making the exhibition possible, especially Trish Stone, Jordan Crandall, Hector Bracho, Doug Ramsey, and Scott Blair. I especially thank the artists Arcangel Constantini, Mark Amerika  & Chad Mossholder, Giselle Beiguelman, and Elisa Kreisinger,  who participated in the exhibition, and were generous in providing interviews now published in the catalog.

–Eduardo Navas

Preliminary Notes on Analysis of Theodor Adorno’s Minima Moralia

Detail of Minima Moralia 21 and 22 and their respective remixes

Image 1: Word cloud visualizations of Theodor Adorno’s Minima Morlia, aphorisms 21 and 22 on the left and their corresponding remixes on the right. (Click image for detail)

My first post for Minima Moralia Redux is dated October 16 2011, but I had done much research prior to this date. I had been reading extensively on Theodor Adorno and his work, while also creating visualizations of YouTube viral memes for my post-doc at The Department of Information Science and Media Studies at the University of Bergen in affiliation with The Software Studies Lab in San Diego, now also based in NYC.  As I analyzed meme patterns, it became evident that much of the material that is discussed in terms of remixing in music and video, which is also quite popular across media culture, usually relies on acts of selectivity–meaning that with the ubiquity of cut/copy & paste, people tend to re-contextualize pre-existing material, much how DJs and producers used sampling to remix in dance music culture during the eighties. [1]

Image 2: Word cloud visualization of the first thirty aphorisms in Theodor Adorno’s Minima Moralia. (Click image to view large file)

Minima Moralia Redux is a type of mashup, itself, of art, writing as a literary act, and media research that explores how data visualization is providing new possibilities for understanding creative processes. The project explores the selective remix, which arguably is quite popular across culture since cut/copy and paste became a common act due to daily use of computers. Certainly this is the type of remixing that most people debate over in remix culture. The selective remix consists of evaluating the source material and deciding what to leave and what to omit, as well as what to add, all while making sure that the source material remains recognizable.[2]  This means that large parts are kept as originally produced while others may be radically different. A tension in authorship develops, as the remixer clearly shows creativity quite similar to an “author’s.” At the same time, the remixed work relies heavily on the cultural recognition of the author and his/her work.  Much has been written about such tensions, but it is my hope that the research I am now introducing here in preliminary fashion will be a contribution to understanding how we come to create works that appear to be autonomous and credited to a single person, and how we can move past such conventions to more productive approaches that do justice to the way culture is communicating at an ever increasing pace.

 

Image 3: Word cloud visualization of the remixes of the first thirty aphorisms in Theodor Adorno’s Minima Moralia (Click image for large file)

Minima Moralia Redux has various layers of significance. First, I wanted to explore, as I already explained, how the selective remix functions. I decided to do this by embedding myself in the process, as opposed to studying another person’s remix. In this project, I examine each entry carefully, do research on it, and eventually re-write it to make it relevant to issues that are taking place in contemporary times. While doing this, I keep in mind that it is the voice of Adorno that is at play here. This means that I need to make sure that Adorno’s theories remain his.  In other words, it is not necessarily my opinion that is expressed in the remixes, although I do take creative license and adjust– even critique Adorno’s views within his own writing. This is no different than a music remixer who often times will create a different piece of music, one which nevertheless, is not credited to him/her as author/artist, but only as a person who remixed the author’s work. In the case of music this is done in the commercial sector for increasing sales, but in remix culture, it is done because people may simply love doing it, and/or are fans of the artist/author.  Taking this approach with Adorno’s work, I argue, is only fair given that Adorno himself believed in revising one’s view on life and the world. In the 1960s, he admitted that some of his critical analysis in Dialectic of Enlightenment, which he co-wrote with Horkheimer, no longer stood their ground in 1969. He considers the book “a piece of documentation.” By this Adorno and Horkheimer let the book be part of history. [3]  Based on this critical position on his part, it is very unlikely, for instance, that in 2013, he would use the word “savage” as he did when he wrote aphorism 32.[4]  The result of this approach in Minima Moralia Redux is a new text that is clearly still in large part Adorno’s, but which I hope resonates with the language and issues of the twenty first century.

I rewrite each aphorism  one sentence at a time, evaluating it word for word. I study the history of particular words, and evaluate the sentence’s relevance during the times when the book was written. I then consider how it may be understood and at play in contemporary times. When I rewrite the aphorisms I am conscious of the way remixing functions in music and video, and apply it to writing to see what the results may be. At the same time, I become immersed in the creative process based on intuition as I am also interested in exploring aesthetics.  I use two translations for the rewriting of each entry. The first is by Dennis Redmond, available on Marxists.org, and the other is the official English publication of Minima Moralia translated by E. F. N. Jephcott for Verso Press. I combine parts from both sources, while adjusting sentence structure, and I add and delete material to come up with a statement that is relevant to contemporary times.

For the word cloud visualizations I use Many Eyes, an online resource developed by Martin Wattenberg for IBM. The clouds are useful to evaluate how often words are repeated in the original entries. The visualization of the original text appears at the top of each blog entry. The main section of each post consists of the remixed text with a link to the original source available on Marxists.org. At the bottom is a thumb image of the same visualization along with a second visualization of the actual remix. These thumb images are presented with each post to provide a quick understanding of how key terms are reused and others omitted, while others are added in accordance to the principles of selective remixing. The reader can click on each thumb image to view a detailed version and compare them. I provide two visualizations of aphorisms  at the top of this entry (image 1).

The visualizations expose the constant usage of particular words, and when comparing the original entries to the remixed versions, it becomes evident how selectivity is at play. For instance, one can notice in aphorisms 21 and 22 that some of the words that are more pronounced in the original entry are still repeated often in the remixed versions, while others disappear and others are added (larger words means more repetition, smaller, less frequent). This is similar to how remixing functions in music as well.  I am also evaluating sentence structure and actual number of word repetition for each visualization. I will be releasing a concrete analysis of all this in the future in connection to viral memes, as well as a set of YouTube video mashups. The latter research I have not made available online at all, but two of the videos part of this research can be found on page 106 in my book Remix Theory.  My research of the selective remix as found in the thirty entries that I share on this post is part of my examination of selectivity in other forms of online media production. The idea to look at how remixing functions in text developed out my research in analyzing video. My findings so far have been that there are patterns that certainly crossover among image, music and text, which enables the viewer or reader to sense how remixing is at play in particular pieces.

So far I have remixed thirty-five aphorisms, and provide visualizations of thirty of them as part of this post. Image 2 offers an overall sense of the originals, and image 3 a comparative sensibility of how they were changed after they were remixed.  The process behind the production of each remixed entry takes quite some time to perform, so it will be a while before I can release my final version of this project. This brief entry should at least provide some details on the process that makes Minima Moralia Redux possible.

Below I provide a two column comparative visualization of the first thirty aphorisms (image 4). On the left are the original entries, and on the right appear the remixes. Examining one next to the other provides an idea of how different patterns are at play within and across the originals and the remixes, while looking at them as a large group gives a sense of the aesthetics of writing as a creative act–something that certainly cannot be fully measured, but one could hope can be appreciated.

Image 4: A two column comparison of the first thirty aphorisms of Theodor Adorno’s Minima Moralia and their remixed versions. Comparing each aphorism with its corresponding remix shows the process of selectivity that takes place in remixing text, which is deliberately performed, in this case, along the line of music remixing.

 

[1] I go over much of this in my book: Remix Theory: The Aesthetics of Sampling.

[2] If  too much material is omitted, then the remix may start to lean towards other types of remixes which will not be discussed in this instance. See chapter three in Remix Theory.

[3]Mark Horkheimer & Theodor Adorno, Dialectic of Enlightenment, trans. Edmund Jephcott (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1987), xi -xii.

[4] See my remix, which is an extensive critique of Adorno’s conflicted bourgeois position, by using his own words: http://minimamoraliaredux.blogspot.com/2013/06/minima-moralia-32.html

Navasse Improvisation Circa 2000-01

An improvisation on two CDDJ players and two Technics 1200s recorded at some point in 2000 or 2001. It consists of a remix of various artists including The Art of Noise, Steve Reich, Roni Size, Kraftwerk, Miles Davis, Kruder and Dorfmeister, Underworld along with some bleeps and glitches.

This was a session done in one sitting and it’s not as smooth as I would like; yet, there are enough good moments that I think it is worth sharing, especially given that I am unlikely to recreate it. I am unable to provide credit for some of the tracks due to the fact that I don’t have all the records I used with me at the moment. The list of the songs is below:

1) Intro: excerpts of Kraftwerk: Trans Europe Express (1990 reissue) 0:00
2) Herbaliser: A Mother (Kruder & Dorfmeister Remix, 1996) 1:30
3) Art of Noise: Dragnet (1987) 5:28
4) Kraftwerk: Expo 2000 (2000) 8:26
5) Roni Size and Reprazent: Trust Me (1997) 10:15
6 & 7: Drum n Bass tracks currently unable to check name.
8) Bleeps, 22:00
9) Miles Davis: Chocolate Chip (1992) 24:00
10) Underworld: Bruce Lee (1999) 27:35
11) Malcom McClaren: Hobo Scratch (1982) 30:30
12) Steve Reich: Pulses (1997) 33:20
13) Techno/trance house track, currently unable to check name,
14) Kraftwerk: Numbers (1981) 39:42
15) Art of Noise: Beatbox (1984) 42:37

Hip-Hop to Dubstep: International Music Styles and the Remix, Part 5 of 7

Above: “portishead – documentaire – 1998 (welcome to portishead)”, included in the resource selections below.

List of online resources and music selection for week 5 of Hip-Hop to Dubstep, taught during the summer of 2013 at The New School’s  Media Studies, Department of Communication. I will be releasing brief notes based on my class lectures in the near future. If interested in looking at the actual class webpage with all the weekly selections at once, feel free to peruse this link: http://navasse.net/NS/NCOM3039A/. My notes will not be available on the class webpage, only on each corresponding entry here on Remix Theory. Please note that links may become broken. If and when this happens, the best thing to do is to search for the source by name. And do let me know if anything is broken and I will look into it.

View:
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4

Week 5
Trip-Hop/Downtempo/Drum ‘n’ Bass
July 1 – July 5, 2013

Music Selection and Relevant Links:

The Drum and Bass Diaries: Episode I – What is Drum and Bass?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EAV8L7wae_I
The Drum and Bass Diaries: Episode II – What is a Rave?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GSC3plKDiZE
The Drum and Bass Diaries: Episode III – The Master of Ceremony
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uxkdckYB7VY
The Drum and Bass Diaries: Episode IV – The Life of a DJ
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bOcQHyGKj-A
The Drum and Bass Diaries: Episode V – Making Music
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-LnfVPV4Ymo
The Drum and Bass Diaries: Episode VI – The Next Generation
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t_FTwpM-m2o
The Drum and Bass Diaries: Episode VII – The Future
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4OpHbkvdpG0
The Drum and Bass Diaries: Episode VIII – The Love
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-uNfg4w4v4w

The Bristol Sound
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V34aBj4txCc
MASSIVE ATTACK PORTISHEAD Bristol Academy, 19th February 2005
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WS8ghabeIGc
portishead – documentaire – 1998 (welcome to portishead)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rElcSg81Qgo

Roni Size – BBC 2 – The Works Documentary Part 1
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3lErrB_AVGQ
Roni Size – BBC 2 – The Works Documentary Part 2
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ddhuq_cc1Q8

To undestand the process and history of sampling, view Nate Harrison’s
“Amen Break”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5SaFTm2bcac
The Winstons – “Amen Brother”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GxZuq57_bYM

The concept album (to be considered in relation to noise and the studio as a music instrument):
The Pet Sounds/Sgt. Pepper Connection-Part 1
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cz4rHCRNy_U
The Pet Sounds/Sgt. Pepper Connection-Part 2
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IU7fG_tQoPo

Trip-Hop/Downtempo Selection:

Double Dee and Steinski Lesson 1:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a8Bkk4fwBHw
Double Dee and Steinski Lesson 2 (1984):
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vaFQX5_4qJw
Double Dee and Steinki Lesson 3 (1985):
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u4HEhOObGYw

Coldcut – “Say Kids What time is it?” (1987)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gOlI-pi3Zug
Coldcut – “Beats and Pieces” (1987)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DyIQ2Nzcx_E
(Coldcut remixed Eric B & Rakim’s “Paid in Full” thanks to the recognition of the two tracks above. See week 4 for links that explain more about “Paid in full.”)
Coldcut was heavily influenced by the aesthetics of cut & paste as performed on the turntables by Grandmaster Flash on his well-known “Grandmaster
Flash’s Adventures on the Wheels of Steel” (1981)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gXNzMVLqIHg

DJ Shadow – “Midnight in a Perfect World”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8FboDWxVuxc
JFB Midnight (Dj Shadow) Routine
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wgkzcid28ZU
Midnight In A Perfect World (Extended Version) – DJ Shadow
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oWRekgV671c
DJ Shadow – Midnight In A Perfect World [Gab Remix]
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MxK6GzfhuTo

Massive Attack – Protection (1994)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mpmc8m87
kIc&list=PLE02D96538B2819D1
Mad Professor vs. Massive Attack – No Protection (1994)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F3VhggpAgF8&list=PL-W4U8Ymet4oRlZyU62u22ZwW7lIvZ6h5

Massive Attack – “Thankful for what you’ve got” (1991)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gcEeqFTx2_k
The above is a cover of Vaughn’s original recording:
William De Vaughn – “Thankful for What You’ve Got”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KDTXljIqxRE
William De Vaughn’s composition was recorded in various dance versions (currently not sure of proper authors of these remixes):
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0KFpaWVy-Ac
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZycUHTlfGpA
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=778JCaw4eZ0
Remixed by Paul Oakenfold and Steve Osborne
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d0H71Ps_1jU

Worth considering how Massive Attack’s cover gets remixed to fit the dialogue of a film (pay attention to how the verses get rearranged to complement the film):
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lU4EnYbCHJM

Portishead – Dummy (1994)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c6Rvde1YeLE
Portishead – Roseland New York City (Live)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZFwnlCudeC0

Portishead – Numb
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M6rJn_TEu5Y
Portishead – Numb (remix)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8VV8_BJQK8o

Portishead – “Sour Times”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g7gutsi1uT4
Blondie – “Heart of Glass”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WGU_4-5RaxU
Mashup – “Sour Glass” a mashup of Portishead “Sour Times” and Blondie’s “Heart of Glass”:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xzqyZFHOcE0

Massive Attack and Portishead – Glorybox
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=22kGEbIwmWY

Nightmares on Wax YouTube Music Selection from the Album Carboot Soul (1999):
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SvOBGKhd8wg&list=
RD02OfHlA_ipUp0

DJ Kicks’ Thievery Corporation (1999)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wqTHBOd_H4E
Thievery Corporation Live at KCRW (2011)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QfwPJhwh0Ew

Kruder and Dorfmeister (KD Sessions)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iCU36y5utlw&list
=PLBF9F0CC9321D7F65
First song in the KD session above is a remix of Roni Size’s “Heroes”(1997) :
Roni Size “Heroes”: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xb7fQhz21OU

DJ Crush’s Strictly Turntablized (1995)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OkYNQHtjYWM

Tricky – “Aftermath” (1995)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FWNOzFnYCI4
Tricky – Maxinquaye (Album, 1995)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L8Xum7NrlEE&list=
PLBA6E68A26EBED593

 

Early Drum ‘n’ Bass (Jungle) Selection (note selection starts in the mid-nineties, just as Jungle is coming out of hardcore):

Shy FX & UK Apachi – Original nuttah (1994)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AzbdBk6XQ6Y

Marvelous Cain – Hitman (1994)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZU_jg3e7Lso
Remix:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hhBLcc7iVNQ
Arguably a popular intro to cut into a set. Note the influence of dancehall in this version. Also note the Amen Break: Marvelous Cain – “Hitman (Dream Team Mix)”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VQvG21alkTA
Marvelous Cain – “Jump Up” (1994)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n45a1p3tryE

DJ Hype & Ganja Max (Feat MC Fats & DJ Daddy) – “Rinse Out” (1995)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GaX31WvdB-A

TDK – “Friday” (Circa mid-90s)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yfOuAq3xXKk

Splash – “Babylon” (1995)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=prFk3bLlLMU

Rude Bwoy Monty – “Summer Sumting” (1995)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zo3Fs_jonHY

Krome & Time – “Licence” (1995)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GgDrr9fNA6U
(Note that it uses the splced amen break)
Krome & Time – “Ganja Man” (1995)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wSsVAzNXqRo

Droppin’ Science – “Easy” (1995)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BMU9-2oFi-U

 

Drum ‘n’ Bass Selection:

Goldie - Timeless (1995)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gN0yH4UrXjI

Goldie – “What You Won’t Do for Love (Radio Edit)” (1998)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gfkbRQIX3NQ
Compare Goldie’s version with 2pac’s “Do For Love” (1997)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=br6y-BmBmRU
Original by Bobby Caldwell – “What You Won’t Do for Love”(1978)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8NQ-Bk63Hs8

Photek – Selections from Modus Operandi (1997)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gpryFZtdM0A&list=
PLUdmMccuxH2HJrCrFvMUa6g2VlyPvOpTI
Photek – various selections
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9qJKxaWb0_A&list=
RD021DIesf-xgz0
Photek – “Knitevision” (1998)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1DIesf-xgz0

Roni Size & Reprazent – Selections from New Forms (1997)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xb7fQhz21OU&list=
RD02CIU37LagLUM
Roni Size – “Watching Windows” (1997)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AZeGmKK8ZW0
Nuyorican Soul Remix of Roni Size’s “Watching Windows”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i59m7ppfvhk

DJ Die – “Slide Away” (1998)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_1vWWfe9OM4

Adam F – “Brand New Funk” (1998)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=81L-4BodG6o

Ray Keith – “Do it” (1998)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zybnM4x_1Vo

Todd Terry – “Blackout” (1999)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IITE8aR5pqk
Todd Terry - Resolutions (1999)
http://www.discogs.com/Todd-Terry-
Resolutions/master/113293

Digital – “Far Out” (Remix) (1997)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=71IAGWwU5uw

Ed Rush – Sabotage (1997)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I0PxjQD8AKs

Aphrodite Music Selection
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TPXeDp2zwSc&list=
PL2BE2C5E5AD1963BA

Kemistry & Storm, radio session (1997)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3qUPkUWhfOM

 

Jazz/Ambient Drum ‘n’ Bass Selection:

T. Power vs. MK Ultra – “Mutant Jazz” (1995)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ep6QiLXHLy0

LTJ Bukem – Logical Progressions (1996-2000)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7xvcr8sCtlQ&list=
PL05E02CAEF38E1D6B

Cujo – “Traffic” (1997)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l2KLl9Vf_Dg

Kosma – “Aeroboot” (2002)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IVnIdWiol8Q

Red Snapper – “Crusoe Takes a Trip” (1996)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cP2WedALHmQ

 

Drum ‘n’ Bass covers/versions worth of note:

Sade – “Sweetest Taboo”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kcPc18SG6uA
Sweet Corner – “Sweetest Taboo”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B6glc6egYdg

Beatles, “Come Together”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=axb2sHpGwHQ
MC Olive, “Come Together” (1995)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DVkPYGZnLks

Inia Kamose – “Here Comes the Hotstepper”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qRMVL_kji40
Ini Kamose – “Here Comes the Hotstepper” (Booyaka Remix) (1995)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kV3S4s3hLWs
The hip hop version takes the chorus from “Land of a Thousand Dances” by The Head Hunters (1965)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=etlD8gF8okI
R & B version by Wilson Pickett was more popular (1966):
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7fa4BfPQiKs

Hip-Hop to Dubstep: International Music Styles and the Remix, Part 4 of 7

Above: “Pump Up the Volume – Part 1, The History of House Music”, included in the resource selections below.

List of online resources and music selection for week 4 of Hip-Hop to Dubstep, taught during the summer of 2013 at The New School’s  Media Studies, Department of Communication. I will be releasing brief notes based on my class lectures in the near future. If interested in looking at the actual class webpage with all the weekly selections at once, feel free to peruse this link: http://navasse.net/NS/NCOM3039A/. My notes will not be available on the class webpage, only on each corresponding entry here on Remix Theory. Please note that links may become broken. If and when this happens, the best thing to do is to search for the source by name. And do let me know if anything is broken and I will look into it.

View:
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3

Week 4
Hip-Hop/House Music/Techno
June 24 – 28, 2013

Music Selection and Relevant Links:

Modulations – History Of Electronic Dance Music Documentary
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cveYosINMQM

Pump Up The Volume – Part 1 – The History Of House Music
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qcpWFiriv3w
Pump Up The Volume – Part 2 – The History Of House Music
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dtSmjnumwew
Pump Up The Volume – The History Of House Music Documentary PT 3:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DxVNW5Fh0g8

Rave – BBC house music documentary from 1992 [1/3]:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MaLSZy8AfSw
Rave – BBC house music documentary from 1992 [2/3]
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yuf8dwxdhZ8
Rave – BBC house music documentary from 1992 [3/3]:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mDUpxze2II4

Krautrock – The Rebirth of Germany (BBC Documentary) – Full Version
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cHUwkYkn_kA

 

Hip Hop Music Selection:

LA Dreamteam – “Rockberry Jam” (1985)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gDd3N_uGlKo

Rock Master Scott And The Dynamic Three – “The Roof Is On Fire” (1984)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RlAUAIFo7CM

Beastie Boys - License to Ill (1986)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kYMSa5PoRK8&list=
PL25B9AE950D56705F

Erik B and Rakim - Paid in Full (Album, 1987)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o8Ot0jDQpYY
ErikB and Rakim – “Paid in Full” (Remix)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E7t8eoA_1jQ
Sample sources for bass-line and drums:
Dennis Edwards – “Don’t Look Any Further”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CH3rx8LhrQo
Soul Searchers – “Ashley’s Roach Clip” (break happens around 3:35)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1XNr06zoKYg

LL Cool J – “Going Back to Cali” (1988)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FdizL4on-Rc
LL Cool J – “Illegal Search” (1990)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_nnb-TL-5oY

EPMD – “You Gots to Chill” (1988)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JUGisre9xNU
Sample taken from Zapp & Roger’s “Bounce to the Ounce”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lK6wOG_aDl8

Boogie Down Productions (KRS-One) (1989)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y4LAb777Dtg

Ice Cube – AmeriKKKa’s Most Wanted (Album, 1990)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kOhkBOsXoB0

Public Enemy “Night of the Living Baseheads” (1988)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fyR09SP9qdA

A Tribe Called Quest - The Lowend Theory (1991)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bEuZWegc34w
A Tribe Called Quest - Midnight Marauders (1993)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dmaBXE17S00

Wu – Tang Clan - Enter The Wu. Tang – 36 Chambers (Full Album, 1993)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BuZVbShtNeU

Dre Dre - The Chronic (Album, 1992)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hhOXih3EhF4

2pac - 2Pacalypse Now (Album, 1991)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l0wqYeC2J5k

2pac – “Changes” (1992, remixed and released in 1998)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nay31hvEvrY
Samples from Bruce Hornsby and the Range – “The Way It Is” (1986)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cOeKidp-iWo

Nas sampled 2Pac’s “Changes” for his song “Black President” (1998)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YxdW5ImUy1s

Notorious Big - Ready To Die (Full Album, 1994)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x4moqaKUwbY
Biggie Smalls – “One More Chance”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SNynDNPQR0g
Biggie Smalls – “One More Chance Remix” (1995)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=132OAFRqoFI
Remix samples from Debarge’s 1993 song “Stay with Me” (sample starts around 2:36)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jc4X7tLYqNs

 

House Music Selection (early house):

Anita Ward – “Ring my Bell” (1979)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=URAqnM1PP5E

Skatt Brothers – “Walk the Night” (1979)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Q3PkEjKMLc
Extended remix:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OTH1dW3_E1Y

The Salsoul Orchestra. “Ooh, I Love It (Love Break)”. 12″ Original Remix Shep Pettibone. (1982)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HkDmbJegNpw
Short version (break mix):
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ynSP04nUThk
(Note that in the above mixes you can already hear the drum arrangement that Frankie Bones would come to perfect with drum machines.)

First Choice- “Let No Man Put Asunder” (1983)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QKOY6xpir90

 

House Music Selection (house proper):

Chip E. – “Time to Jack” (1986)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4cUpalmjMZ0

On The House – “Move Your Body” (1986)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=enyh56-Q_Cs
(First record to use a piano in house music. Became a house anthem because it uses the word “house” in the lyrics)

Mr. Fingers (Larry Heard) – “Can You Feel it?” (1986)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UeiH9Mm0E5Y

Farley Jackmaster Funk – Jack’n The House (1987)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xZFw2aLFX0E

Ralphi Rosario – You Used To Hold Me (1987)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZCVP8-2-DzQ

Phuture – “Acid Trax” (1987)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OKbLI8EufNo

Raze – “Break for Love” (1988)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=axvKAXi8N8M

“Work it to the Bone” (1988)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gg-CPoLKnDo

Jungle Brothers – “I’ll House You” (1989)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AFGhQSiGHWM
(The above crosses over to what came to be called “hip-house.” Some house purists did not like rap combined with house. Often times only the dub or instrumental versions of this record was remixed on the dancefloor.) One of various intrumental versions that were released:
“Richie Rich Instrumental”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K0k1qLGVjsM

Ten City – That’s The Way Love Is (Underground Mix, 1989)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=99jHPfkZX3Y

 

Techno Selection:

Cibotron, “Clear” (1983)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fGqiBFqWCTU
“Clear” Frankie Bones (founder of House music) Remix:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kkrk5Gzo_2A
Also listed under electro-Funk for Week 3
Cibotron, “Cosmic Cars” (1983)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aOBUqCIXXWY

Model 500 “No UFOs” (1985)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KNz01ty-kTQ

Derrick May – “Nude Photo” (1987)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xIx32rZdENM
(2004 Remix)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I7HiL2m63pQ

Derrick May – “Rhythim Is Rhythim” – Strings of Life (Original Mix, 1987)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qiCEGXGm-z0

Inner City – “The Good Life” (1988)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iUwfOOdg4eE
Inner City – “Big Fun” (1988)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=omfiVkkJ1OU
Inner City is a crossover act, and is not necessarily considered a techno group, even though Kevin Saunderson is one of the three founders of Techno in Detroit. The songs by Inner City were also mixed with Freestyle and some Electro-Funk, depending on the club.

Joey Beltram – “Energy Flash” (1990)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ALsHox5sYCk
Considered a pivotal track in defining the sound of techno particulary in Europe. It is one of the compositions that also opened the door for the aesthetics of trance. Beltram considered his composition to be part of house music, but it eventually became labeled as techno in Europe for selling purposes.

Aphex Twin – Didgeridoo (1992)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S5UBYOv1G9A

Carl Cox – “The Player” (1996)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dXlgIpcjfxs

Jeff Mills – Metropolis (Full Length, 2001)
Inspired by the film Metropolis
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H4V7lSNezJs&list=PL45E81DDD3837F6B1

Richie Hawtin – “DE9 | Closer To The Edit” (2001, full-length)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4MSymIy9eCY

Juan Atkins – “Flash Flood” (2012)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DJ8fszlzX-Q

Hip-Hop to Dubstep: International Music Styles and the Remix, Part 3 of 7


Above: The Amen Break documentary by Nate Harrison, included in the resource selections below.

List of online resources and music selection for week 3 of Hip-Hop to Dubstep, taught during the summer of 2013 at The New School’s  Media Studies, Department of Communication. I will be releasing brief notes based on my class lectures in the near future. If interested in looking at the actual class webpage with all the weekly selections at once, feel free to peruse this link: http://navasse.net/NS/NCOM3039A/. My notes will not be available on the class webpage, only on each corresponding entry here on Remix Theory. Please note that links may become broken. If and when this happens, the best thing to do is to search for the source by name. And do let me know if anything is broken and I will look into it.

View:
Part 1
Part 2

Week 3
June 17 – 21, 2013
Dub/Disco/Hip-Hop

Music selection and relevant links:

The Joy of Disco – The Joy of Disco:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4zQpMnU6N4o

Amen Break Documentary (by Nate Harrison):
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5SaFTm2bcac
The Winstons – Amen Brother:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GxZuq57_bYM

Scratch
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bj1r6u8zLPo&feature=player_embedded

TB-303 Documentary – Bassline Baseline (2005)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TLQwwtjtiY4

The hip hop years part 1:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LhrSlOa2bsA
The hip hop years part 2:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Qjs771lWnE
The hip hop years part 3:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E_46ig2V74I

Copyright Criminals
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tIoR3PYpduo

 

Music Selection from Jamaica, Dancehall:

Yellowman – King Yellowman (Full Album) 1984
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i11zpqkmupg
Yellowman Reggae Sunsplash 1982
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ko46_aXW_94

Mr Loverman- Shabba Ranks
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tcWif3u4A0A
House Call (Your Body Can’t LieTo Me), featuring Maxi Priest
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IwtAGWWC9y4

Elephant Man – Willie Bounce
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r038-tDd8eI

Elephant Man & Wyclef Jean – FIVE-O
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0nNiBgS4bZ0

YouTube Selection of Dancehall:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wH_0_
pijbZY&list=RD02IwtAGWWC9y4

 

Music Selection from UK, Northern Soul:

Frank Wilson – “Do I Love You” (Arguably once the rarest record ever)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xwvpeYiQwss

The O’Jays – I Love Music (1975)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e_1s2UFc_z8

R Dean Taylor – There’s A Ghost In My House
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cp62EBeSZUc

Love On A Mountain Top – Robert Knight
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=96eiVUoWzB8

Bobby Freeman – “C’mon And Swim”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1l2agUPZ7lc

The four tops – I can’t help myself – Live HQ
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qXavZYeXEc0

Gloria Jones – “Tainted Love” (1964)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LKUjI_CbIY0
(Not northen soul, but a cover of “Tainted Love,” 1984 sequential mashup with “Where did our Love Go?” by Soft Cell, New Wave version):
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=srtuQU20QXA

 

Music Selection from U.S., Disco (before mid-seventies, soul music influenced by the Motown sound):

Viva Tirado Live – El Chicano (1970) 1971 performance:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vxmwPkqkCnk
(
See Kid Frost below under rap for a sample used in a rap song)

Charles Wright & The Watts 103rd Street Rhythm Band “Love Land” (1970)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sZ0yX05h3IQ

The Friends of Distinction – “Love or Let Me Be Lonely” (1970)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hnEbZjOhUQU

Manu Dibango – “Soul Makossa” (1973)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w2jYjUiulMQ

Kook and the Gang – “Jungle Boogie” (1974)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QHGOO73Gxg4

MFSB TSOP The Sound Of Philadelphia (1974)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-3nPLfG9gZY

Van McCoy – “The Hustle” (1975)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wj23_nDFSfE

Sylvester – You Make Me Feel (mighty real)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oG2ixYJ79iE

James Brown – The Original Disco Man DISCO (1979)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OHQJDbeT1lM

Village People – “In the Navy”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=InBXu-iY7cw

Village People – “Just a gigolo”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1FvVcagZln0

Donna Summer ” Love To Love You Baby ”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X6iTciIqLxM
Donna Summer I Feel Love [Extended Dance Edit] (1977)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ljxm3NsnVI0
Donna Summer – I Feel Love (Patrick Cowley Megamix)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q1km3Fbeo0w

Le Freak – Chic (1978)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DbzooE7jtiE
“Le Freak (House/Funk Deep Remix)”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v9e1REw6WFY
Chic Megamix – in memory of Bernard Edwards (mixed in the tradition of the old days with two turntables)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AMlhtKw_Sds

More, More More – Andrea True Connection
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RlJGrIyt-X8

Bee Gees – “Staying Alive” (1979)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_izvAbhExY

Bee Gees Megamix (Straight on two turntables, as it would be done at the club)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dxZckhvwsoM

 

Music Selection from U.S. (Electro-funk/techno-funk, or simply… “funk” as it was called and known to DJs playing it.)

Three key tracks that informed funk in the eighties:
Babe Ruth’s “The Mexican,” James Brown’s “The Payback”, and The Incredible Bongo Band’s “Apache”

“The Mexican” (break played by Mancuso and DJs in the Bronx, happens at 3:35 – 445)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_YhRkAF1tXM
Incredible Bongo Band – “Apache” (1973)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vnsc_U4sJ8Q
“Apache” is actually a cover originally recorded by The Shadows in 1969:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NoN6AKPGkBo
James Brown, “The Payback” (1973)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IST6qRfVqwY
James Brown’s drummer, Clyde Stubblefield is arguably the most sampled drummer in history:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OOS18vi7WLc

Unity by James Brown & Afrika Bambaataa
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b6hE5OmpKyc
Afrika Bambaataa and the Soul Soinc Force -”Planet Rock”
(extended mix, 1982)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7XPmOpLVZPI

Afrika Bambaataa, “Looking for the Perfect Beat”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2RJlYzBhLg4

Twilight 22 – “Electric Kingdom”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2RJlYzBhLg4

Al Naafiysh “The Soul” Side A:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zbvDORZ0HlU
Side B:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i46sF1PcqL8
It’s about time Remix:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8hLUjEO2ZCs

Cybotron “Clear”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fGqiBFqWCTU
“Clear” Frankie Bones (founder of House music) Remix:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kkrk5Gzo_2A

Herbie Hancock, “Rock it”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GHhD4PD75zY
Live version (inspired many DJs including Mix Master Mike to become DJs–becaue of Grandmaster DSTs performance)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TN5ltss0NMA
See Mike Scratching:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0DLED7krHwU

Much of early electro-funk borrowed (sampled freely) or were heavily influenced by the music of Kraftwerk (Germany). Two songs that were heavily sampled are:
Kraftwerk – “Numbers”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4YPiCeLwh5o
Kraftwerk – “Transeurope Express”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qBGNlTPgQII

Newcleus was clearly influenced by the sound coming out of Germany. “Push the Button makes this quite evident.” Also note that while Newcleus were very much experimenting with electro-funk, they also would rap, as you will notice one of their most successful songs is included under the rap section below.

Newcleus – “Push the Button” (extended mix) (1983)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=67zWw4UfHWE
Newcleus – “Push the Button” (with vocal intro)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vatk9sF7qyI

The P Crew – “Nasty Rock” (1983)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y5rbZ-RQbIg

Midnight Star – “Freakazoid” (1983)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uRo426va26I

 

Music Selection from U.S., Hip Hop (Rap):

Grand Master Flash and the Furious Five – “The Message” (1982)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O4o8TeqKhgY

The Egyptian Lover “Egypt Egypt” (1983)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qjFs9CPGhts

The Egyptian Lover “I Need a Freak” (1983)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o4Cd9wGHtr0

Newcleus – “Jam on It” (1984)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zEmg5GaAHbk

Whodini – “Friends” (1984)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tECCvdWEweA
Whodini – “Five Minutes of Funk”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pskKw8sPtQk
Whodini – “Five Minutes of Funk” (Instrumental)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Y5pj1IoJ7Q

Ice T – “Reckless” (1984)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=POydN8X1GSY
Ice T – “Reckless” (extended mix)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CdnPn8QTDIU

Dr. Dre and the Wrecking Crew (1984)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RT9O-pUGsVM

World Famous Supreme Team (1984)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FHMVkqCKknc
Malcolm Mclaren, “World Famous” (1984)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dq_dDiLZl38
Malcom Maclaren, “Hobo Scratch” (1984)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B_mHENbpmHk

UTFO – “Roxanne Roxanne”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4KpngczmD7Q

Roxanne Shante “Roxanne’s Revenge”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zVy2LHKFG18

Run DMC – King of Rock (1985)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qXzWlPL_TKw
Run DMC – Sucker MCs (1984)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rXVFNs0piP8

Beastie Boys – License to Ill (1986)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U7M7d8u40I4&list=PL07ABD2EB68C1C470

NWA, “Something 2 dance 2″ (1988)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=794JyvaTHqQ
NWA, “Straight Out of Compton” (1988)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-MrQtOoQRpc

Public Enemy – “Don’t Believe the Hype” (1988)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9vQaVIoEjOM
Public Enemy – “Fight the Power” (1990)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8PaoLy7PHwk

Queen Latiffah and Monie Love – “Ladies First” (1989)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hLB5bUNAesc

Monie Love “Monie in the Middle” (1990)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AxHLYjz_oEs

Kid Frost – La Raza (1990)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bZ8AS300WH4
(See disco section for the original song “Viva Tirado” by El Chicano to hear the source of melody and percussion samples)

 

Music Selection from U.S., Hip Hop (Turntablism):

Grandmaster Flash, Adventures on the Wheels of Steel
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gXNzMVLqIHg
Grandmaster Flash Ibiza 2010
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nwvkRx0eV68
Grandmaster Flash live, 2011
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ue2BVDCF9Vg

DJ Shadow, “Midnight in a Perfect World”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nmzHRGoKca0

DJ Crush, Kemuri
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aVjgRlto8PI

Invisible Skratch Picklz Live
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GQ3N6XADe9I

DJ Qbert, 2012 DMC
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SS0rl7IGHwA
DJ Qbert & Mix Master Mike 2012 DMC
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h7pVbJClzuc

Kid Koala (Jazz improvization, date unknown)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KbFIGFv4GLQ

Beat Junkies 1998
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=29TIvv5uIVE

Hip-Hop to Dubstep: International Music Styles and the Remix, Part 1 of 7


Above: “Rehab” by the Jolly Boys, Mento cover of Amy WineHouse’s composition (listed below as part of music selection)

This summer I am teaching an onlline class on the history of remix in music since the 1960s for The New School’s  Media Studies, Department of Communication. I will be making available the music selections for each week in a total of 7 entries. I will be releasing brief notes based on my lectures in the near future, for now I am sharing the online resources and music selection.  The first week’s list of resources is below, following the description of the class. If interested in looking at the actual class webpage with all the weekly selections at once, feel free to peruse it: http://navasse.net/NS/NCOM3039A/ . My notes will not be available on the class webpage, only on each corresponding entry here on Remix Theory. Please note that links may become broken. If and when this happens, the best thing to do is to search for the source by name. And do let me know if anything is broken and I will look into it.

Course Description
This course is a theoretical and historical survey of popular music influenced by or part of the remix tradition in hip-hop and electronica. Emphasis is placed on the shaping of culture by media and vice-versa. Remixes are compositions that reconfigure a pre-existing music recording, often to make it more danceable. As simple as the definition sounds, it carries a complex set of cultural variables that include issues of class, gender, and ethnicity. Listening exercises and analysis of recorded music is complemented by readings that provide understanding of the historical context and theoretical underpinning of remix practices. Our survey begins with popular music in the United States in the early 1950s, including Blues, R&B, Rock n’ Roll, and early funk. In the 1960s, this music was appropriated in the Caribbean and gave birth to new styles, Calypso, Ska, Reggae, and Dub. Then it came full circle back to the United States with the development of hip-hop music. The rise of the international styles called trip-hop, drum ‘n’ bass, and dubstep and the parallel history of techno and house music and styles in-between are then considered, in order to arrive at a theoretical understanding of the complexity of contemporary music and the extent to which it has been defined by the principles of sampling and remix.

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Week 1
June 3, – 7, 2013
Pre-history/Critical Context
1900 – 1960s

Music selection and relevant links:

Jamaican Music style before the ’60s:

Mento Music:
http://www.mentomusic.com/WhatIsMento.htm
http://worldmusic.about.com/od/genres/p/Mento.htm
Selection of Mento Music:
http://www.mentomusic.com/buy.htm

Brief Video on Mento Music:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2NWpJZ0t48k

Jamaican Folk Dances Explained:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RvktJry98nY

Hil and Gully Rider:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tCpTkfYVHpQ

Contemporary Mento Band, The Jolly Boys:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XDzzlNX-h7Q

Versioning Mento:
Amy Winhouse’s “Rehab” Mento Version by The Jolly Boys:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XOwl-bMfIkc
Winehouse’s “Rebhab”:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KUmZp8pR1uc

Jamaican Journey – from mento to dubstep:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wlkf-F803bI

 

Selection of Music from the United States that influenced Jamaican Culture:

Charles Brown – “Rockin’ Blues”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=flr6S-orNr8
YouTube’s Charles Brown Music Selection:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CGtu2gMRIPU&list=RD02T77Ubj6EGlE

Louis Jordan, “Let the Good Times Roll”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DCWUvI7yKtQ
YouTube’s Louise Jordan Music Selection:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DCWUvI7yKtQ&list=RD021NAUeL0D4SI

Big Joe Turner – “Shake, Rattle & Roll”:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=20Feq_Nt3nM
YouTube’s Big Joe Turner’s Music Selection:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MJsod7Lgn8E&list=RD02bMcfKSeVKDA

Nat King Cole, “Nature Boy”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iq0XJCJ1Srw
YouTube’s Nat King Cole’s Music Selection:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6QRiG_WEzTQ&list=RD02J1glriB54oE

Peggy Lee, “Fever” (1958)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JGb5IweiYG8

Abbie Mitchell, “Summertime” (1935)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x0g12TrSnIE

Billie Holiday, “Summertime” (1936)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uc-_8LdKTDA

Miles Davis, “Summertime” (1958)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BQtAWKQ_M7w

 

Versioning “Fever” and “Summertime:”

Susan Cadogan, “Fever”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T1jvw005Pt0

Ska version of “Summertime” by The Rude Boys (2000)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xV4W6JqUJpI

Reggae version of “Summertime” by B. B. Seaton (1973)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5RAMm_VmOjA

 

Versioning  in Jungle/Drum ‘n’ Bass:

“Sweetest Taboo” by Sade:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kcPc18SG6uA
“Sweetest Taboo” by Sweet Corner:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B6glc6egYdg

Beatles, “Come Together”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=axb2sHpGwHQ
MC Olive, “Come Together”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DVkPYGZnLks

Remix Image Inspired by the Title of my Book, Remix Theory

I received a tweet with the image above.  I think it’s a good remix in its own right. It appropriates not only the title of my book but also the concept behind the sound of music quite well.

Thanks to Harold Schellinx; his tweet: https://twitter.com/hefferman/status/321968978903851008/photo/1

Text Release: Modular Complexity and Remix: The Collapse of Time and Space into Search, by Eduardo Navas

Note: This text was written for the peer review Journal AnthroVision 1.1 | 2012 : First issue. It was published in September of 2012. It is released here with permission from the editors. A special thanks to Nadine Wanono and the peer reviewers for all their support in the process of revising and publishing the text.  This essay is the first formal release of my post-doc research for The Department of Information Science and Media Studies at The University of Bergen, Norway in collaboration with The Software Studies Lab at Calit2, University of California, San Diego during the period of 2010-2012. I will be releasing more of my research in the near future. For now, you may also look over related material, available under Projects.

For proper text citation use:

Référence électronique
Eduardo Navas, « Modular Complexity and Remix: The Collapse of Time and Space into Search  », Anthrovision [En ligne], 1.1 | 2012, mis en ligne le 01 septembre 2012, consulté le 15 mars 2013. URL : http://lodel.revues.org/10/anthrovision/324

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Excerpt:

If postmodernity consisted of the collapse of time into space, then the time of globalization at the beginning of the twenty-first century consists of the collapse of time and space into search.  Culture has entered a stage in which time and space are redefined by modular access to knowledge in unprecedented fashion with the use of search engines. Search redefines the way people come to terms with historical developments that are constantly recycled and remixed with the use of new media technology.  A search is usually performed with engines such as Google and Bing; technology that is founded on research that brings together private and public interests.

This text is a reflection on the implications behind search algorithms that provide people with material that is relevant in correlation to a hierarchy of supposed importance that may reach great popularity, and perhaps even go viral (large circulation online) according to the use of key terms known as meta-data. This text is an evaluation of the aesthetics of search made possible because of what I call modular complexity; meaning, the ability to function within a system of modules that are autonomous but that also effectively inform and redefine each other.[1]  This, in effect, leads to the collapse of time and space into search; meaning, if the postmodern gave way to a sense of historical dismissal, such attitude is fully at play in networked culture as ahistoricity.  This shift, which informs emerging markets on the global network, repurposes interdisciplinary methodologies across fields of research in the social sciences as well as the humanities.

[1] I first introduce the concept of Modular Complexity in the Essay “Remix: The Ethics of Modular Complexity in Sustainability,” written for CSPA Journal’s Spring 2010 issue.  See: http://remixtheory.net/?p=461

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